Native Plants Recommended for NY, CT & NJ Gardens & Landscapes

Native Plants Recommended for NY, CT & NJ Gardens & Landscapes

The following species (and recommended cultivars [cvs.]) are native to the NY-CT-NJ area, the northeast region, or the Appalachian Mountains and East Coast/Piedmont. For convenience, these native plants are grouped by category type, and are listed in alphabetical order by botanical name. All of the plants that Rosedale offers are nursery propagated and grown, and are not collected in the wild. Naturally occurring or man-made hybrids of native species are considered “natives” for purposes of this list.

EVERGREEN TREES

  • Juniperus virginiana (Eastern Red Cedar) and cvs.
  • Magnolia grandiflora (Southern Magnolia) – Hardy cvs. ‘Bracken’s Brown Beauty & ‘Edith Bogue’
  • Picea glauca (White Spruce)
  • Pinus strobus (White Pine) and cvs.
  • Thuja occidentalis (Eastern or American Arborvitae) including cvs. ‘Hetz Wintergreen’,‘Nigra’, ‘Smargd’ [‘Emerald Green’] and ‘Techney’
  • Tsuga canadensis (Canadian Hemlock) and cvs.

BROADLEAF EVERGREEN SHRUBS (INCLUDING NATIVE AZALEAS)

  • Azalea [Rhododendron] arborescens (Sweet Azalea) *
  • Azalea [Rhododendron] atlanticum (Coastal Azalea)*
  • Azalea [Rhododendron] calendulaceum (Flame Azalea) *
  • Azalea [Rhododendron] nudiflora (Pinxterbloom Azalea) *
  • Azalea [Rhododendron] vaseyi (Pink-Shell Azalea) *
  • Azalea [Rhododendron] viscosum (Swamp Azalea) * [* All native, deciduous Azalea (Rhododendron) species]
  • Ilex glabra (Inkberry) including cvs. ‘Compacta’, ‘Densa’, ‘Nigra’, ‘Shamrock’
  • Ilex opaca (American Holly) and cvs.
  • Kalmia angustifolia (Sheep Laurel)
  • Kalmia latifolia (Mountain Laurel) and cvs.
  • Leucothoe [‘L. axillaris’, ‘L. catesbaeis’, ‘L. fontanesiana’] (Leucothoe)
  • Rhododendron maximum (Rosebay Rhododendron)
  • Zenobia pulverulenta (Dusty Zenobia)

SHADE TREES

  • Acer rubrum (Red [Swamp] Maple) and hybrids with Silver Maple [Acer x freemanii]
  • Acer saccharum (Sugar Maple)
  • Betula nigra (River Birch)
  • Betula papyrifera (Paper White or Canoe Birch)
  • Carya cordiformis (Bitternut)
  • Carya ovata (Shagbark Hickory)
  • Fagus grandifolia (American Beech)
  • Gleditsia triacanthos (Honeylocust)
  • Gymnocladus dioicus (Kentucky Coffee Tree)
  • Juglans nigra (Black Walnut)
  • Liquidambar styraciflua (Sweet Gum)
  • Liriodendron tulipifera (Tulip Tree)
  • Nyssa sylvatica (Sour Gum)
  • Ostrya virginiana (American Hop Hornbeam)
  • Quercus alba (White Oak)
  • Quercus bicolor (Swamp White Oak)
  • Quercus coccinea (Scarlet Oak)
  • Quercus imbricaria (Shingle Oak)
  • Quercus palustris (Pin Oak)
  • Quercus prinus (Chestnut Oak)
  • Quercus rubra (Northern Red Oak)
  • Sassafras albidum (Sassafras)
  • Tilia americana (Basswood)
  • Ulmus americana (American Elm) [Recommended Dutch Elm Disease-resistant cvs. ‘Princeton’ & ‘Valley Forge’]

DECIDUOUS FLOWERING TREES

  • Aesculus octandra (aka A. flava) (Yellow Buckeye)
  • Aesculus glabra (Ohio Buckeye)
  • Amelanchier canadensis, A. laevis, A. x lamarckii (Shadbush, Shadblow, Juneberry)
  • Asimina triloba (Pawpaw)
  • Cercis canadensis (Redbud, Whitebud)
  • Chionanthus virginicus (White Fringe)
  • Cladrastis Kentuckea (aka c. lutea) (Yellowwood)
  • Cornus alternifolia (Pagoda Dogwood)
  • Cornus florida (White Flowering Dogwood)
  • Cotinus obovatus (Smoke Tree)
  • Crataegus crus-galli (Cockspur Hawthorn)
  • Crataegus phaenopyrum (Washington Hawthorn)
  • Crataegus viridis ‘Winter King’ (Winter King Hawthorn)
  • Franklinia alatamaha (Franklinia)
  • Halesia monticola, H. tetraptera (Mountain Silverbell, Carolina Silverbell)
  • Magnolia acuminata (Cucumber Magnolia)
  • Magnolia virginiana ‘Glauca’ (Sweet Bay Magnolia)
  • Oxydendrum arboreum (Sorrel Tree or Sourwood)
  • Viburnum lentago (Nannyberry)

DECIDUOUS FLOWERING SHRUBS

  • Aesculus parviflora (Bottlebrush Buckeye)
  • Aronia arbutifolia ‘Brilliant’ (Red Chokeberry)
  • Aronia melanocarpa (Black Chokeberry)
  • Baccharis halimifolia (Groundsel)
  • Callicarpa americana (American Beautyberry)
  • Calycanthus floridus (Sweet Shrub)
  • Ceanothus americanus (New Jersey Tea)
  • Cephalanthus occidentalis (Buttonbush)
  • Chionanthus virginicus (White Fringe)
  • Clethra acuminata (Cinnamon Pepperbush)
  • Clethra alnifolia (Sweet Pepperbush)
  • Comptonia peregrina (Sweet Fern)
  • Cornus racemosa (Gray Twig Dogwood)
  • Cornus sericea (Red Twig Dogwood)
  • Fothergilla gardenii (Dwarf Fothergilla)
  • Fothergilla major (Large Fothergilla)
  • Hamamelis vernalis (Spring Witch Hazel)
  • Hamamelis virginiana (Fall Witch Hazel)
  • Hydrangea arborescens (Smooth Hydrangea)
  • Hydrangea quercifolia (Oakleaf Hydrangea)
  • Ilex verticillata (Winterberry)
  • Itea virginica (Sweetspire)
  • Lindera benzoin (Spicebush)
  • Myrica pensylvanica (Bayberry)
  • Nemopanthus mucronatus (Mountain Holly)
  • Physocarpus opulifolius (Nine Bark)
  • Rhus aromatica (Fragrant Sumac)
  • Rhus glabra (Smooth Sumac)
  • Rhus typhina (Staghorn Sumac)
  • Rosa carolina (Carolina Rose)
  • Rosa palustris (Swamp Rose)
  • Rosa virginiana (Virginia Rose)
  • Salix discolor (Pussy Willow)
  • Sambucus canadensis (Canadian Elderberry)
  • Vaccinum angustifolium (Lowbush Blueberry) and cvs.
  • Vaccinum corymbosum (Highbush Blueberry) and cvs.
  • Viburnum dentatum (Arrowwood)
  • Viburnum lantana (Wayfaring Tree incl. cv. ‘Mohican’)
  • Viburnum lentago (Nannyberry)
  • Viburnum prunifolium (Black Haw Viburnum)
  • Viburnum trilobum (American Cranberry Bush)

VINES

  • Aristolochia macrophylla (Dutchman’s Pipe)
  • Campsis radicans (Trumpet Vine)
  • Clematis virginiana (Virgin’s Bower)
  • Decumaria barbara (Native Climbing Hydrangea)
  • Lonicera sempervirens (Trumpet Honeysuckle)
  • Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia Creeper)
  • Wisteria frutescens (American Wisteria)
  • Wisteria macrostachya (Kentucky Wisteria)

WOODY GROUNDCOVERS

  • Andromeda polifolia (Bog Rosemary)
  • Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (Bearberry)
  • Cornus canadensis (Bunchberry)
  • Gaultheria procumbens (Checkerberry or Wintergreen)
  • Gaylussacia species (Huckleberry)
  • Juniperus horizontalis (Horizontal Juniper)
  • Mitchella repens (Partridgeberry)
  • Paxistima canbyi (Canby or Ratstripper)
  • Vaccinium macrocarpon (Cranberry)
  • Xanthorhiza simplicissima (Yellow Root)

HERBACEOUS FLOWERING PERENNIALS

Key to Typical Uses:

  • B - Borders
  • M - Meadows
  • W - Woodlands/Shade
  • E - Water Edges/Moist
  • R - Rock Gardens
  • Actaea pachypoda (Baneberry) W
  • Amsonia tabernaemontana, A. hubrichtii (Blue Star Flower) B/M
  • Anemone canadensis (Native Anemone) W
  • Anemone cylindrica (Thimbleweed) W
  • Anemone virginiana (Virginia Anemone) W
  • Aquilegia canadensis (Wild Columbine) W/R
  • Arisaema triphyllum (Jack-in-the-Pulpit) W
  • Aruncus dioicus (Goatsbeard) B/M/W
  • Asarum canadense (Canadian Ginger) W
  • Asarum shuttleworthi (Shuttleworth’s Ginger) W
  • Asclepias incarnata (Swamp Milkweed) M/E
  • Asclepias tuberosa (Butterfly Weed) M
  • Aster cordifolius (Heart-leaf Aster) W
  • Aster divaricatus (White Wood Aster) W
  • Aster ericoides (Heath Aster) B,/M
  • Aster laevis (Smooth Aster) B/W
  • Aster macrophyllus (Big Leaf Aster) W
  • Aster novae-angliae and cvs. (New England Aster) B/M
  • Aster novi-belgii and cvs. (New York Aster) B/M
  • Baptisia -- all species (False Indigo) B/M
  • Boltonia asteroides (Boltonia) B/M
  • Caltha palustris (Marsh Marigold) E
  • Chelone -- all species (Turtlehead) B/M
  • Chrysogonum virginianum (Golden Star) W
  • Cimicifuga racemosa (Snakeroot) W
  • Clintonia borealis (Bluebead Lily) W
  • Coreopsis species (Coreopsis or Tickseed) B/M
  • Dicentra canadensis (Squirrel Corn) W
  • Dicentra cucullaria (Dutchman’s Breeches) W
  • Dicentra exima (Wild Bleeding Heart) W
  • Echinacea species (Coneflower) B/M
  • Eryngium yuccifolium (Rattlesnake Master) BM
  • Eupatorium coelestinum (Hardy Ageratum) B/M
  • Eupatorium purpureum [E. dubium., E. maculatum, E. rugosum] (Joe Pye Weed) B/M
  • Filipendula rubra (Queen-of-the-Prairie) B/M
  • Galax urceolata (Beetle) W
  • Gentiana andrewsii (Bottle Gentian) B/R
  • Geranium maculatum (Spotted Geranium) M/W
  • Helenium autumnale (Sneezeweed) B/M
  • Heliopsis helianthoides (Perennial Sunflower) B/M
  • Hepatica aculiloba (Sharp-Lobed Hepatica) W
  • Heuchera americana and H. villosa (Coralbells) B/W
  • Hibiscus moscheutos (Marsh Mallow) B/M/E
  • Iris cristata (Crested Iris) W
  • Iris versicolor (Blue Flag) E
  • Jeffersonia diphylla (Twinleaf) W
  • Liatris spicata (Blazing Star) B/M
  • Lobelia cardinalis (Cardinal Flower) M/W/E
  • Lobelia siphilitica (Great Blue Lobelia) M/W
  • Mertensia virginica (Virginia Bluebells) W
  • Monarda didyma & M. fistulosa (Bee Balm) B/M
  • Oenothera species (Sundrops & Evening Primroses) B/M
  • Opuntia humifusa (Eastern Prickly Pear) R
  • Pachysandra procumbens (Alleghany Spurge) W
  • Penstemon digitalis (Smooth White Penstemon or Beardtongue) B/M
  • Phlox divaricata (Canadian Phlox) W
  • Phlox maculata (Wild Sweet William) B/M
  • Phlox paniculata (Garden Phlox) B/M
  • Phlox stolonifera (Creeping Phlox) W
  • Phlox subulata (Moss Phlox) R
  • Physostegia virginiana (False Dragonhead) B/M
  • Podophyllum peltatum (May Apple) W/E
  • Polemonium reptans (Creeping Polemonium) B/M
  • Polygonatum biflorum (Solomon’s Seal) W
  • Porteranthus (aka Gillenia) trifoliata (Bowman’s Root) W
  • Pycnanthemum muticum, P. flexuosum (Mountain Mint) B/M/E
  • Rudbeckia species (Black-eyed Susan) B/M
  • Sanguinaria canadensis (Bloodroot) W
  • Scutellaria serrata (Skullcap) W
  • Sisyrinchium angustifolium (Blue-eyed Grass) B/M
  • Smilacina racemosa (False Solomon’s Seal) W
  • Solidago species (Golden Rod) B/M
  • Stokesia laevis (Stoke’s Aster) B/M
  • Thalictrum dioicum (Early Meadow Rue) M/W
  • Thermopsis villosa (Carolina False Lupine) B/M
  • Tiarella cordifolia and T. wherryi (Foamflower) W
  • Tradescantium virginiana (Virginia Spiderwort) B/R/W
  • Trillium cuneatum (Toad Trillium) W
  • Trillium erectum (Wake Robin) W
  • Trillium grandiflorum (Snow Trillium) W
  • Uvularia perfoliata (Perforated Bellwort) W
  • Veronia noveboracensis (Ironweed) B/M
  • Veronicastrum virginicum (Culver’s Root) B/M
  • Viola culcullata (Marsh Blue Violet) M/W
  • Viola labradorica (Labrador Violet) W/R
  • Viola pedata (Bird’s Foot Violet) W
  • Waldsteinia fragarioides (Barren Strawberry) W
  • Zizia aurea (Golden Alexanders) M/E

FERNS

Preferred Conditions:

  • Exposure: S - Sun |SH - Shade
  • Soils: A - Average Soil | H - Humus | M - Moist
  • Adiantum pedatum (American Maidenhair Fern) SH/H
  • Athyrium felix-femina (Lady Fern) S/M/SH/A
  • Dennstaedtia punctilobula (Hay-Scented Fern) S/SH/A
  • Dryopteris carthusiana (Toothed Wood Fern) SH/A/H
  • Dryopteris cristata (Crested Wood Fern) SH/A/H
  • Dryopteris goldiana (Goldie’s Woodfern) SH/A/H
  • Dryopteris marginalis (Leather Wood Fern) SH/A/H
  • Dryopteris spinulosa (aka D. carthusiana) (Tooth Wood Fern) SH/A/H
  • Dryopteris x australis (Dixie Wood Fern) SH/A/H
  • Matteuccia pennsylvanica (Ostrich Fern) (aka Struthiopteris) SH/M or A
  • Onoclea sensibilis (Sensitive Fern) S/M/SH/A or M
  • Osmunda cinnamomea (Cinnamon Fern) SH/A or H; M
  • Osmunda claytoniana (Interrupted Fern) SH/H or A
  • Osmunda regalis (Royal Fern) S or SH/M
  • Polystichum acrostichoides (Christmas Fern) SH/A or H
  • Thelypteris noveboracensis (New York Fern) S/M/SH/A or H

GRASSES AND RELATED PLANTS

Preferred Conditions:

  • Exposure: S - Sun | PS - Part Shade
  • Soils: A - Average Soil | M - Moist | D - Dry
  • Acorus calamus (Sweet Flag) S/M
  • Andropogon gerardi (Big Blue Stem) S/A
  • Andropogon virginicus (Broom Sedge) S/A
  • Brizia media (Quaking Grass) S/A
  • Carex nigra (Black Blooming Sedge) S or PS/A or H
  • Carex pensylvanica (Pennsylvania Sedge) S or PS/A or H
  • Chasmanthium latifolium (Northern Sea Oats) S/A or D
  • Elymus glaucus (Blue Wild Rye) S/A or D
  • Equisetum hyemale (Horsetail or Scouring Rush) S/M
  • Festuca glauca (Blue Fescue) S/A or D
  • Panicum virgatum (Switch Grass) and cvs. S/A or M
  • Schizachyrium scoparium (Little Bluestem) S/A or D
  • Sporobolis heterolepsis (Prairie Dropseed) S/A or D
  • Sorghastrum nutans (Indian or Wood Grass) S or PS/A

© Rosedale, Nurseries, Inc. 1993, 2003, 2010, 2014 W-7

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